Subject Area

Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy



Around 71.8% of all expenditures in Egypt are out-of-pocket expenses for health care. Almost all medications, including antibiotics, come in a variety of brand names with varying prices.


To assess the variation in prices of different brands of antibiotics used for the management of adult community-acquired pneumonia in the outpatient settings.

Patients and procedures

List of antibiotics selected using guidelines for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults at the outpatient setting and those antibiotics specified in the national list of essential medicines (NLEM) 2022, Egypt, was prepared. Percentage cost variation and cost ratio of different brands of these antibiotics were determined and compared.


Sixteen antibiotics specified in NLEM 2022 were found. The number of brands ranged from 2 to 74. We found large cost variations among different brands of the same antibiotics. The minimum cost variation was 6.8% for parenteral moxifloxacin while the maximum cost variation was 700% for oral levofloxacin.


The prices of various brands of the same antibiotics that are specified in the NLEM vary significantly. Prescribing doctors should consider the financial status of the patient and use the most affordable varieties of antibiotics to make sure that patients finish the specific course of therapy and limit the emergence of antibiotic resistance.