Subject Area

General Chemistry


Objective: The goal of this work is to develop and validate eco-friendly spectrophotometric methods for the simultaneous determination of chlorzoxazone (CHZ), paracetamol (PAR), and aceclofenac (ACF) in the presence of their major impurities, specifically 2-amino-4-chlorophenol (ACP), 4-aminophenol (4-AP), and diclofenac (DCF), in commercially available tablet dosage forms using chemometric techniques. Method: Six chemometric models, namely classical least squares (CLS), partial least squares (PLS) regression, and principal component regression (PCR), in addition to feed-forward back-propagation artificial neural networks (FFBP-ANN), cascade-forward back-propagation artificial neural networks (CFBP-ANN), and radial basis function artificial neural networks (RBF-ANN), were employed to analyze the synthetic mixtures, which included the cited drugs and their main impurities and degradation products, using phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0) as the green solvent. A validation set of seven mixtures in the wavelength range of 260–302.4 nm at 0.1 nm intervals was used to validate the suggested models after they had been constructed with a calibration set of twelve mixtures. Results: The proposed multivariate calibration methods exhibited good linear relationships in accordance with the Beer-Lambert law, spanning concentration ranges of 6–19 µg mL−1 for CHZ, 8.45–24.05 µg mL−1 for PAR, and 2.4-7.6 µg mL−1 for ACF, and were validated following the ICH guidelines. The accuracy of laboratory-prepared mixtures ranged from 97–102%, with an intra-day precision relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of less than 1% and an inter-day precision R.S.D. of less than 1.95%. Additionally, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was ≤1.0. The accuracy of co-formulated tablets was also satisfactory, with mean percentage recoveries falling within the range of 97-104.5%. Conclusion: The six suggested methods were simple, accurate, selective, quick, and eco-friendly, making them appropriate for routine analysis of the cited drugs in ternary mixtures and co-formulated tablets in quality-control laboratories.